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Econ 101 and Defining our Rights

Econ- 101 and Defining your
1st and 2nd Amendments

Date: 06 April 2013
Time: 1:00 PM- 4:00 PM
Location:
860 Kidder St 
Wilkes-Barre, PA 18702


1319: We opened with the Pledge of Allegiance, then Pastor Eric Smith lead us in prayer.
1321: Followed by the opening scripture read by Pastor Eric Smith.

1323: We then called Mr. Joe White and started defining the words and Amendments.
Mr. White expressed that he believes we as a people and Nation need this to open our eyes to what is happening in our country and remember all those who have died to keep us free.

1400: Mr. White had to leave before the reading of the U.N. Document 7277.

The people who showed were as follows:

Melvin Gilbert
Cheyenne
Hilton Miller
Jon Horvath
Mr. Joe White (Via Phone)
Pastor Eric Smith
John D. Zangaro


Here is the material we went over-



Definition of census (n)cen·sus [ sénssəss ]   
  1. count of population: an official count of a population carried out at set intervals
  2. systematic count: a systematic count or survey
  3. registration for taxation in ancient Rome: in ancient Rome, a registration of the population and their property that was used for assessing taxes
Synonyms: population count, poll, registration, survey





  1. hard construction material: a mixture of cement, sand, aggregate, and water in specific proportions that hardens to a strong stony consistency over varying lengths of time
  2. mass of coalesced particles: a mass formed when particles coalesce
  3. solid and real: able to be seen or touched because it exists in reality, not just as an idea
Synonyms: tangible, existing, actual, material, physical, solid, real




Here we break down the meanings/ definitions of words so that you might better understand their context.  We hope to show you that to define something is to show "WHAT IT IS".  Thus proving that you can not (unlike a person) redefine a word.  A person is known to be able to change and stay fluid but a word is concrete and is/ means as it is defined and is not to change due to census.



Definition of meaning (n)mean·ing [ mning ]   
  1. what something means: what a word, sign, or symbol means
  2. what somebody wants to express: what somebody intends to express, either in words or action
  3. what something signifies: what something signifies or indicates
Synonyms: sense, connotation, denotation, import, gist




Definition of definition (n)def·i·ni·tion [ dèffə nísh'n ]   
  1. meaning of word: a brief precise statement of what a word or expression means, e.g. in a dictionary
  2. act of defining word: the act or process of defining what a word or expression means, e.g. in writing a dictionary
  3. clarification: the act of describing or stating something clearly and unambiguously
Synonyms: meaning, description, explanation, classification, characterization, designation, delineation, demarcation




Definition of word (n)word [ wurd ]   
  1. meaningful unit of language sounds: a meaningful sound or combination of sounds that is a unit of language or its representation in a text
  2. brief utterance: a brief comment, announcement, discussion, or conversation
  3. information: information or news about somebody or something
Synonyms: term, expression, name




Definition of constitution (n)con·sti·tu·tion [ knstə tsh'n ]   
  1. statement of fundamental laws: a written statement outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country or organization is governed
  2. document containing fundamental laws: a document or statute outlining the basic laws or principles by which a country or organization is governed
  3. somebody's general health: somebody's general physical and sometimes psychological makeup, especially the body's ability to remain healthy and withstand disease or hardship
Synonyms: charter, bill, statute, instrument of government




Economics 101                        by Walter E. Williams
Economic ignorance allows us to fall easy prey to political charlatans and demagogues, so how about a little Economics 101.

How many times have we heard "free tuition", "free healthcare", and free you-name-it? If a particular good or service is truly free, we can have as much of it that we want without the sacrifice of other goods or services. Take a "free" library; is it really free? The answer is no. Had the library not been built, that $50 million could have purchased something else. That something else sacrificed is the cost of the library. While users of the library might pay a zero price, zero price and free are not one and the same. So when politicians talk about providing something free, ask them to identify the beneficent Santa Claus or Tooth Fairy.

It's popular to condemn greed but it's greed that gets wonderful things done. When I say greed, I don't mean stealing, fraud, misrepresentation, and other forms of dishonesty. I mean people trying to get as much as they can for themselves. We don't give second thought to the many wonderful things that others do for us. Detroit assembly line workers get up at the crack of dawn to produce the car that you enjoy. Farm workers toil in the blazing sun gathering grapes for our wine. Snowplow drivers brave blizzards just so we can have access to our roads. Do you think these people make these personal sacrifice because they care about us? My bet is that they don't give a hoot. Instead, they along with their bosses do these wonderful things for us because they want more for themselves.

People in the education and political establishments pretend they're not motivated by such "callous" motives as greed and profits. These people "care" about us but which areas of our lives do we derive the greatest pleasures and have the fewest complaints, and which areas do we have the greatest headaches and complaints? We tend to have a high satisfaction level with goods and services like computers, cell phones, movies, clothing and supermarkets. These are areas were the motivation is greed and profits. Our greatest dissatisfaction are in areas of caring and no profit motive such as public education, postal services, and politics. Give me greed and profits and you can keep the caring.

How about the idea that if it saves just one life it's worth it? That's some of the stated justification for government mandates for child-proof medicine bottles, gun locks, bike helmets and all sorts of warning labels. No doubt there's a benefit to these government mandates but if we only look at benefits we'll do darn near anything because there's always a benefit to any action. For example, why not have a congressionally mandated five mph highway speed limit? According to the U.S. Department of Transportation, there were 43,220 highway fatalities in 2003 with an estimated cost of $230 billion. A five mph speed limit would have spared our nation of this loss of life and billions of dollars.

You say, "Williams, that's preposterous!" You're right. Most people would agree that a five mph speed limit is stupid, impractical and insane. That's one way of putting it but what they really mean is: the benefit of saving 43,200 highway deaths and the $230 billion, that would result from mandating a five mph speed limit, isn't worth all the inconvenience, delays and misery.

Admittedly, the five mph speed limit is an extreme example, a reduction ad absurdum. Nonetheless, it illustrates the principle that our actions shouldn't be guided by benefits only; we should also ask about costs. Again when politicians come to us pretending they're Santa Clauses or Tooth Fairies delivering benefits only, we should ask what's the cost and who's going to pay and why.

Walter E. Williams
c32-04
August 9, 2004
http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/wew/articles/04/econ101.html                 Page 1





In his most brilliant essay (Number 78), Hamilton defended the Supreme Court's right to rule upon the constitutionality of laws passed by national or state legislatures. This historically crucial power of "judicial review," he argued, was an appropriate check on the legislature, where it was most likely that "the pestilential breath of faction may poison the fountains of justice." Hamilton explicitly rejected the British system of allowing the Parliament to override by majority vote any court decision it finds displeasing. Rather, "the courts of justice are to be considered the bulwarks of a limited Constitution against legislative encroachments." Only the painstaking and difficult process of amending the Constitution, or the gradual transformation of its members to another viewpoint, could reverse the Supreme Court's interpretation of that document.
http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1776-1800/federalist/fed_I.htm








Freedom of religion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
"Freedom of worship" and "Freedom to Worship"

Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.[1] The freedom to leave or discontinue membership in a religion or religious group —in religious terms called "apostasy" —is also a fundamental part of religious freedom, covered by Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.[2]

Freedom of religion is considered by many people and nations to be a fundamental human right.[3][4]

In a country with a state religion, freedom of religion is generally considered to mean that the government permits religious practices of other sects besides the state religion, and does not persecute believers in other faiths.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_religion

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/data/constitution/amendment01/             Page 2





Amendment I
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

re·spect·ing
 [ ri spékting ]  
    regarding: with reference to or concerning somebody or something
Synonyms: with regard to, regarding, with respect to, in respect of, relating to, about, concerning

es·tab·lish·ment
 [ i stábblishmənt ]  
    something established: something that is established as a business, institution, organization, or undertaking
    people in power: a group of people who hold power and control the institutions in a society or a professional group
    business premises: a place of business
Synonyms: founding, formation, creation, setting up, launch, institution, establishing, instituting, bringing about

pro·hib·it
 [ pr�? híbbit ]  
    forbid somebody: to stop somebody from doing something by passing a law or rule that forbids it
    prevent somebody: to prevent somebody from doing something
Synonyms: forbid, ban, bar, exclude, proscribe, outlaw, disallow, rule out, veto, interdict

ex·er·cise
 [ éksər sz ]  
    physical activity: physical activity and movement, especially when intended to keep a person or animal fit and healthy
    physical movement: a physical movement or action, or a series of movements or actions, designed to make the body stronger and fitter or to show off gymnastic skill
    practice of skill or procedure: a series of actions, movements, or tasks performed repeatedly or regularly as a way of practicing and improving a skill or procedure
Synonyms: isometrics, workout, bodybuilding, keep fit           


                            Page 3


Amendment II
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

mi·li·tia
 [ mə líshə ]  
    soldiers who are also civilians: an army of soldiers who are civilians but take military training and can serve full-time during emergencies
    reserve military force: a reserve army that is not part of the regular armed forces but can be called up in an emergency
    unauthorized quasi-military group: an unauthorized group of people who arm themselves and conduct quasi-military training
Synonyms: paramilitaries, reservists, local militia, mercenaries, territorial army, soldiers, guerrillas, soldiers of fortune, legionnaires





The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution is the part of the United States Bill of Rights that protects the right to keep and bear arms. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Supreme Court ruled on several occasions that the amendment did not bar state regulation of firearms, considering the amendment to be “a limitation only upon the power of Congress and the National government and not upon that of the States.”[1][2][3][4] Along with the incorporation of the Second Amendment in the 21st century, the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual right to possess and carry firearms.[5] This represented the first time since the 1939 case United States v. Miller that the Supreme Court had directly addressed the scope of the Second Amendment.[6]
In 2008 and 2010, the Court issued two landmark decisions to officially establish an "individual rights" interpretation of the Second Amendment. In District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), the Court ruled that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm, unconnected to service in a militia[5][7] and to use that arm for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home within many longstanding prohibitions and restrictions on firearms possession listed by the Court as being consistent with the Second Amendment.[8] In McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. 3025 (2010), the Court ruled that the Second Amendment limits state and local governments to the same extent that it limits the federal government.[9]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution         Page 4


Amendment II

arm- 
as in “bear arms”
2 [ahrm] Show IPA
noun

1. Usually, arms. weapons, especially firearms.

2. arms, Heraldry. the escutcheon, with its divisions, charges, and tinctures, and the other components forming an achievement that symbolizes and is reserved for a person, family, or corporate body; armorial bearings; coat of arms.
verb (used without object)

3.  to enter into a state of hostility or of readiness for war.
verb (used with object)

4.  to equip with weapons: to arm the troops.

5.  to activate (a fuze) so that it will explode the charge at the time desired.
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/bear+arms

in·fringe
 [ in frínj ]  
    disobey or disregard something: to fail to obey a law or regulation or observe the terms of an agreement
    encroach on somebody's rights or property: to take over land, rights, privileges, or activities that belong to somebody else, especially in a minor or gradual way
Synonyms: encroach on, intrude on, interfere with, impinge on, trespass, invade, overstep

To be noted:  This has been painfully specified and noted, I as a citizen of the United States of America, would like to be shown the respects of my/ our rights and to have them not be infringed. 
all definitions can be found at bing.com unless specified otherwise.       
                            Page 5




Freedom From War
The United States Program
for General and Complete
Disarmament in a Peaceful
World



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE

DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLICATION 7277
Disarmament Series 5
Released September 1961

Office of Public Services
BUREAU OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 15 cents


INTRODUCTION

    The revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences has produced a crisis in human history. In order to overcome the danger of nuclear war now confronting mankind, the United States has introduced at the Sixteenth General Assembly of the United Nations a Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World.

    This new program provides for the progressive reduction of the war-making capabilities of nations and the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions to settle disputes and maintain the peace. It sets forth a series of comprehensive measures which can and should be taken in order to bring about a world in which there will be freedom from war and security for all states. It is based on three principles deemed essential to the achievement of practical progress in the disarmament field:

First, there must be immediate disarmament action:

    A strenuous and uninterrupted effort must be made toward the goal of general and complete disarmament; at the same time, it is important that specific measures be put into effect as soon as possible.

                            Page 6


Second, all disarmament obligations must be subject to effective international controls:

    The control organization must have the manpower, facilities, and effectiveness to assure that limitations or reductions take place as agreed. It must also be able to certify to all states that retained forces and armaments do not exceed those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process.

Third, adequate peace-keeping machinery must be established:

    There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peace-keeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds.

--------

    There follows a summary of the principal provisions of the United States Program for General and Complete Disarmament in a Peaceful World. The full text of the program is contained in an appendix to this pamphlet.

FREEDOM FROM WAR
THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
SUMMARY
DISARMAMENT GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
   
     The over-all goal of the United States is a free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world which has achieved general and complete disarmament under effective international control; and a world in which adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.

    In order to make possible the achievement of that goal, the program sets forth the following specific objectives toward which nations should direct their efforts:

    The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
    The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;                        Page 7

    The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations;
    The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to insure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations.

TASK OF NEGOTIATING STATES

    The negotiating states are called upon to develop the program into a detailed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved. To this end, they are to seek the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date. At the same time, and without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program, they are to seek agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form part of the total program.

GOVERNING PRINCIPLES

    The program sets forth a series of general principles to guide the negotiating states in their work. These make clear that:

    As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations must be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of disputes;
    Disarmament must proceed as rapidly as possible, until it is completed, in stages containing balanced, phased, and safeguarded measures;
    Each measure and stage should be carried out in an agreed period of time, with transition from one stage to the next to take place as soon as all measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and verified and as soon as necessary arrangements for verification of the next stage have been made;
    Inspection and verification must establish both that nations carry out scheduled limitations or reductions and that they do not retain armed forces and armaments in excess of those permitted at any stage of the disarmament process; and
    Disarmament must take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state.

DISARMAMENT STAGES

    The program provides for progressive disarmament steps to take place in three stages and for the simultaneous strengthening of international institutions.

FIRST STAGE

    The first stage contains measures which would significantly reduce the capabilities of nations to wage aggressive war. Implementation of this stage would mean that:            Page 8

    The nuclear threat would be reduced:
       All states would have adhered to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons.
       The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons would be stopped and quantities of such materials from past production would be converted to non-weapons uses.
       States owning nuclear weapons would not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and would not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture.
        States not owning nuclear weapons would not manufacture them or attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states.
       A Commission of Experts would be established to report on the feasibility and means for the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.

    Strategic delivery vehicles would be reduced:
       Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles of specified categories and weapons designed to counter such vehicles would be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps; their production would be discontinued or limited; their testing would be limited or halted.

    Arms and armed forces would be reduced:
       The armed forces of the United States and the Soviet Union would be limited to 2.1 million men each (with appropriate levels not exceeding that amount for other militarily significant states); levels of armaments would be correspondingly reduced and their production would be limited.
       An Experts Commission would be established to examine and report on the feasibility and means of accomplishing verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of all chemical, biological and radiological weapons.

    Peaceful use of outer space would be promoted:
       The placing in orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable of producing mass destruction would be prohibited.
       States would give advance notification of space vehicle and missile launchings.

    U.N. peace-keeping powers would be strengthened:
       Measures would be taken to develop and strengthen United Nations arrangements for arbitration, for the development of international law, and for the establishment in Stage II of a permanent U.N. Peace Force.

    An International Disarmament Organization would be established for effective verification of the disarmament program:
       Its functions would be expanded progressively as disarmament proceeds.
       It would certify to all states that agreed reductions have taken place and that retained forces and armaments do not exceed permitted levels.
                            Page 9

       It would determine the transition from one stage to the next.
    States would be committed to other measures to reduce international tension and to protect against the chance of war by accident, miscalculation, or surprise attack:           
       States would be committed to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter and to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
       A U.N. peace observation group would be available to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.
       States would be committed to give advance notice of major military movements which might cause alarm; observation posts would be established to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.

SECOND STAGE
    The second stage contains a series of measures which would bring within sight a world in which there would be freedom from war. Implementation of all measures in the second stage would mean:

    Further substantial reductions in the armed forces, armaments, and military establishments of states, including strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and countering weapons;
    Further development of methods for the peaceful settlement of disputes under the United Nations;
    Establishment of a permanent international peace force within the United Nations;
    Depending on the findings of an Experts Commission, a halt in the production of chemical, bacteriological and radiological weapons and a reduction of existing stocks or their conversion to peaceful uses;
    On the basis of the findings of an Experts Commission, a reduction of stocks of nuclear weapons;
    The dismantling or the conversion to peaceful uses of certain military bases and facilities wherever located; and
    The strengthening and enlargement of the International Disarmament Organization to enable it to verify the steps taken in Stage II and to determine the transition to Stage III.

THIRD STAGE
    During the third stage of the program, the states of the world, building on the experience and confidence gained in successfully implementing the measures of the first two stages, would take final steps toward the goal of a world in which:

    States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N. Peace Force.
    The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
    The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
    The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.                    Page 10

Appendix
DECLARATION ON DISARMAMENT
THE UNITED STATES PROGRAM
FOR GENERAL AND COMPLETE DISARMAMENT
IN A PEACEFUL WORLD
    The Nations of the world,
    Conscious of the crisis in human history produced by the revolutionary development of modern weapons within a world divided by serious ideological differences;
    Determined to save present and succeeding generations from the scourge of war and the dangers and burdens of the arms race and to create conditions in which all peoples can strive freely and peacefully to fulfill their basic aspirations;
    Declare their goal to be: A free, secure, and peaceful world of independent states adhering to common standards of justice and international conduct and subjecting the use of force to the rule of law; a world where adjustment to change takes place in accordance with the principles of the United Nations; a world where there shall be a permanent state of general and complete disarmament under effective international control and where the resources of nations shall be devoted to man's material, cultural, and spiritual advance;
    Set forth as the objectives of a program of general and complete disarmament in a peaceful world:
    (a) The disbanding of all national armed forces and the prohibition of their reestablishment in any form whatsoever other than those required to preserve internal order and for contributions to a United Nations Peace Force;
    (b) The elimination from national arsenals of all armaments, including all weapons of mass destruction and the means for their delivery, other than those required for a United Nations Peace Force and for maintaining internal order;
    (c) The establishment and effective operation of an International Disarmament Organization within the framework of the United Nations to ensure compliance at all times with all disarmament obligations;
    (d) The institution of effective means for the enforcement of international agreements, for the settlement of disputes, and for the maintenance of peace in accordance with the principles of the United Nations.
    Call on the negotiating states:
    (a) To develop the outline program set forth below into an agreed plan for general and complete disarmament and to continue their efforts without interruption until the whole program has been achieved;
    (b) To this end to seek to attain the widest possible area of agreement at the earliest possible date;
    (c) Also to seek --- without prejudice to progress on the disarmament program --- agreement on those immediate measures that would contribute to the common security of nations and that could facilitate and form a part of that program.



                            Page 11



    Affirm that disarmament negotiations should be guided by the following principles:
    (a) Disarmament shall take place as rapidly as possible until it is completed in stages containing balanced, phased and safeguarded measures, with each measure and stage to be carried out in an agreed period of time.
    (b) Compliance with all disarmament obligations shall be effectively verified from their entry into force. Verification arrangements shall be instituted progressively and in such a manner as to verify not only that agreed limitations or reductions take place but also that retained armed forces and armaments do not exceed agreed levels at any stage.                   

    (c) Disarmament shall take place in a manner that will not affect adversely the security of any state, whether or not a party to an international agreement or treaty.
    (d) As states relinquish their arms, the United Nations shall be progressively strengthened in order to improve its capacity to assure international security and the peaceful settlement of differences as well as to facilitate the development of international cooperation in common tasks for the benefit of mankind.
    (e) Transition from one stage of disarmament to the next shall take place as soon as all the measures in the preceding stage have been carried out and effective verification is continuing and as soon as the arrangements that have been agreed to be necessary for the next stage have been instituted.

    Agree upon the following outline program for achieving general and complete disarmament:

STAGE I

    A. To Establish an International Disarmament Organization:
    (a) An International Disarmament Organization (IDO) shall be established within the framework of the United Nations upon entry into force of the agreement. Its functions shall be expanded progressively as required for the effective verification of the disarmament program.
    (b) The IDO shall have: (1) a General Conference of all the parties; (2) a Commission consisting of representatives of all the major powers as permanent members and certain other states on a rotating basis; and (3) an Administrator who will administer the Organization subject to the direction of the Commission and who will have the authority, staff, and finances adequate to assure effective impartial implementation of the functions of the Organization.
    (c) The IDO shall: (1) ensure compliance with the obligations undertaken by verifying the execution of measures agreed upon; (2) assist the states in developing the details of agreed further verification and disarmament measures; (3) provide for the establishment of such bodies as may be necessary for working out the details of further measures provided for in the program and for such other expert study groups as may be required to give continuous study to the problems of disarmament; (4) receive reports on the progress of disarmament and verification arrangements and determine the transition from one stage to the next.

                            Page 12


    B. To Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
    (a) Force levels shall be limited to 2.1 million each for the U.S. and U.S.S.R. and to appropriate levels not exceeding 2.1 million each for all other militarily significant states. Reductions to the agreed levels will proceed by equitable, proportionate, and verified steps.
    (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reductions shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the states party to the agreement have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
    (c) The production of agreed types of armaments shall be limited.
    (d) A Chemical, Biological, Radiological (CBR) Experts Commission shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verifiable reduction and eventual elimination of CBR weapons stockpiles and the halting of their production.   

    C. To Contain and Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
    (a) States that have not acceded to a treaty effectively prohibiting the testing of nuclear weapons shall do so.
    (b) The production of fissionable materials for use in weapons shall be stopped.
    (c) Upon the cessation of production of fissionable materials for use in weapons, agreed initial quantities of fissionable materials from past production shall be transferred to non-weapons purposes.
    (d) Any fissionable materials transferred between countries for peaceful uses of nuclear energy shall be subject to appropriate safeguards to be developed in agreement with the IAEA.
    (e) States owning nuclear weapons shall not relinquish control of such weapons to any nation not owning them and shall not transmit to any such nation information or material necessary for their manufacture. States not owning nuclear weapons shall not manufacture such weapons, attempt to obtain control of such weapons belonging to other states, or seek or receive information or materials necessary for their manufacture.
    (f) A Nuclear Experts Commission consisting of representatives of the nuclear states shall be established within the IDO for the purpose of examining and reporting on the feasibility and means for accomplishing the verified reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons stockpiles.
    D. To Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
    (a) Strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles in specified categories and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be reduced to agreed levels by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished in each step by transfers to depots supervised by the IDO of vehicles that are in excess of levels agreed upon for each step. At specified periods during the Stage I reduction process, the vehicles that have been placed under supervision of the IDO shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
    (b) Production of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be discontinued or limited.
    (c) Testing of agreed categories of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be limited or halted.        Page 13

    E. To Promote the Peaceful Use of Outer Space:
    (a) The placing into orbit or stationing in outer space of weapons capable c,f producing mass destruction shall be prohibited.
    (b) States shall give advance notification to participating states and to the IDO of launchings of space vehicles and missiles, together with the track of the vehicle.

    F. To Reduce the Risks of War by Accident, Miscalculation, and Surprise Attack:
    (a) States shall give advance notification to the participating states and to the IDO of major military movements and maneuvers, on a scale as may be agreed, which might give rise to misinterpretation or cause alarm and induce countermeasures. The notification shall include the geographic areas to be used and the nature, scale and time span of the event.
    (b) There shall be established observation posts at such locations as major ports, railway centers, motor highways, and air bases to report on concentrations and movements of military forces.   
    (c) There shall also be established such additional inspection arrangements to reduce the danger of surprise attack as may be agreed.
    (d) An international commission shall be established immediately within the IDO to examine and make recommendations on the possibility of further measures to reduce the risks of nuclear war by accident, miscalculation, or failure of communication.

    G. To Keep the Peace:
    (a) States shall reaffirm their obligations under the U.N. Charter to refrain from the threat or use of any type of armed force--including nuclear, conventional, or CBR--contrary to the principles of the U.N. Charter.
    (b) States shall agree to refrain from indirect aggression and subversion against any country.
    (c) States shall use all appropriate processes for the peaceful settlement of disputes and shall seek within the United Nations further arrangements for the peaceful settlement of international disputes and for the codification and progressive development of international law.
    (d) States shall develop arrangements in Stage I for the establishment in Stage II of a U.N. Peace Force.
    (e) A U.N. peace observation group shall be staffed with a standing cadre of observers who could be dispatched to investigate any situation which might constitute a threat to or breach of the peace.

STAGE II

    A. International Disarmament Organization:
    The powers and responsibilities of the IDO shall be progressively enlarged in order to give it the capabilities to verify the measures undertaken in Stage II.



                            Page 14

    B. To Further Reduce Armed Forces and Armaments:
    (a) Levels of forces for the U.S., U.S.S.R., and other militarily significant states shall be further reduced by substantial amounts to agreed levels in equitable and balanced steps.
    (b) Levels of armaments of prescribed types shall be further reduced by equitable and balanced steps. The reduction shall be accomplished by transfers of armaments to depots supervised by the IDO. When, at specified periods during the Stage II reduction process, the parties have agreed that the armaments and armed forces are at prescribed levels, the armaments in depots shall be destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.
    (c) There shall be further agreed restrictions on the production of armaments.
    (d) Agreed military bases and facilities wherever they are located shall be dismantled or converted to peaceful uses.
    (e) Depending upon the findings of the Experts Commission on CBR weapons, the production of CBR weapons shall be halted, existing stocks progressively reduced, and the resulting excess quantities destroyed or converted to peaceful uses.

    C. To Further Reduce the Nuclear Threat:
    Stocks of nuclear weapons shall be progressively reduced to the minimum levels which can be agreed upon as a result of the findings of the Nuclear Experts Commission; the resulting excess of fissionable material shall be transferred to peaceful purposes.               

    D. To Further Reduce Strategic Nuclear Weapons Delivery Vehicles:
    Further reductions in the stocks of strategic nuclear weapons delivery vehicles and agreed types of weapons designed to counter such vehicles shall be carried out in accordance with the procedure outlined in Stage I.

    E. To Keep the Peace:
    During Stage II, states shall develop further the peace-keeping processes of the United Nations, to the end that the United Nations can effectively in Stage III deter or suppress any threat or use of force in violation of the purposes and principles of the United Nations:
    (a) States shall agree upon strengthening the structure, authority, and operation of the United Nations so as to assure that the United Nations will be able effectively to protect states against threats to or breaches of the peace.
    (b) The U.N. Peace Force shall be established and progressively strengthened.
    (c) States shall also agree upon further improvements and developments in rules of international conduct and in processes for peaceful settlement of disputes and differences.



                            Page 15


STAGE III

    By the time Stage II has been completed, the confidence produced through a verified disarmament program, the acceptance of rules of peaceful international behavior, and the development of strengthened international peace-keeping processes within the framework of the U.N. should have reached a point where the states of the world can move forward to Stage III. In Stage III progressive controlled disarmament and continuously developing principles and procedures of international law would proceed to a point where no state would have the military power to challenge the progressively strengthened U.N. Peace Force and all international disputes would be settled according to the agreed principles of international conduct.

    The progressive steps to be taken during the final phase of the disarmament program would be directed toward the attainment of a world in which:
    (a) States would retain only those forces, non-nuclear armaments, and establishments required for the purpose of maintaining internal order; they would also support and provide agreed manpower for a U.N Peace Force.
    (b) The U.N. Peace Force, equipped with agreed types and quantities of armaments, would be fully functioning.
    (c) The manufacture of armaments would be prohibited except for those of agreed types and quantities to be used by the U.N. Peace Force and those required to maintain internal order. All other armaments would be destroyed or converted to peaceful purposes.
    (d) The peace-keeping capabilities of the United Nations would be sufficiently strong and the obligations of all states under such arrangements sufficiently far-reaching as to assure peace and the just settlement of differences in a disarmed world.
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O 609147           


Econ 101
Q: and A:

1: What is the overall measurement of a country's economic activity?
Gross domestic product
The gross domestic product (GDP) encompasses everything the nation produces and consumes. If GDP declines, a red flag goes up because the economy could be in trouble. Both the Federal Reserve Board and Congress rely on GDP reports when formulating policies related to the economy.
Read more at http://www.kiplinger.com/quiz/business/T019-S001-economics-101/index.html#ySLzg4Uhc2uRBHDf.99

2: The U.S. economy is in a significant recession. What's one definition of an economic depression?
A decline in GDP by at least 10%.
There are many factors that go into a depression, but according to The Economist, it generally means a decline in real GDP by at least 10%, or a decline that lasts more than three years. A recession, however, is defined as a reduction of the GDP for at least two consecutive quarters.                        Page 16

3: When it comes to your finances, falling interest rates are ...
Good for borrowers, bad for savers
Falling interest rates are good when borrowing money because you'll pay less in interest charges. For example, it can make a good time to buy a home, refinance a mortgage or shop around for a better credit-card rate. However, falling rates are bad news for savers as the rate of return on savings accounts and CDs drop, too.

4: Why should you care about inflation?
It affects your purchasing power
Inflation, as measured by the Consumer Price Index, is the increase in the average price of certain goods. And as prices go up, your dollar buys less. For instance, 30 years from now, at an average annual inflation rate of 3%, $1 million will roughly have the same purchasing power as $400,000 does today.

5: Who controls monetary policy in the United States?
Federal Reserve
Monetary policy involves regulating the country's money supply and interest rates to either stimulate or slow the economy. And that's the job of the Federal Reserve. The Fed manages open market operations (the buying and selling of government bonds), reserve requirements (the amount of money banks have to stash) and the discount rate (how much the Fed charges for loans to banks). However, these tools have proven ineffective for dealing with the current crisis, so the Fed has expanded its list of policy instruments to include such things as term auction and commercial paper funding facilities.

6: After dramatic increases over the past few years, home prices dropped in 2008 -- about 8% on average nationwide, and as far as 40% in some metro areas. What economic principle is at play?
Supply and demand.
For years, demand for housing was on the rise, so prices rose, too. The supply of homes also was increasing. When availability of easy credit dried up and people no longer expected housing prices to continue their dramatic rise, demand disappeared. Because supply of housing is much less fluid, a glut of houses have been left on the market and prices have tumbled.

7: When the value of the U.S. dollar falls, what does that mean for your personal finances?
The downside of the falling dollar includes pricier travel and imported products. On the upside: If you invest in overseas markets or mutual funds, your money is worth more as foreign currencies rise against the dollar.

8: Generally, which is healthiest for the economy?
Low inflation
Some inflation is good for economic vitality. High inflation, however, is worrisome because as prices rise quickly, consumers stop spending. Deflation, or a sustained period of falling prices, also reduces economic activity because consumers have incentive to postpone purchases.




                            Page 17


9: As unemployment rates rise ...
Home foreclosure rates rise i
More homes go into foreclosure as unemployment worsens because people cannot afford to pay their mortgages. Possibly just as harmful as unemployment itself is the fear of losing a job because it leads people to postpone purchases of big-ticket items.

10: To decrease the national debt, U.S. consumers need to live within their means.
Although living within their means will do wonders for consumers' personal finances, it won't help the national debt. That's the responsibility of the federal government, which is also spending more money than it's bringing in. As of January 2009, the U.S. government was more than $10.6 trillion in the hole.
Read more at http://www.kiplinger.com/quiz/business/T019-S001-economics-101/index.html#ySLzg4Uhc2uRBHDf.99



























                            Page 18


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